In the centre of Beijing, China, you will find Tiananmen Square, a large city square named after the Tiananmen gate (Gate of Heavenly Peace) which led to the Forbidden City.
During the Ming Dynasty in 1415 Tiananmen Gate to the Forbidden City was built. However it was badly damaged during heavy fighting between Li Zicheng and the early Qing emperors. The Tiananmen square was designed and built in 1651, and in the 1950s it was enlarged to four times its original size.
Near the centre of today’s square, stood the “Great Ming Gate” which was the southern gate to the Imperial City. It was renamed “Great Qing Gate” during the Qing Dynasty, and “Gate of China” during the Republic of China era. This gate is purely for ceremonial use and has a style similar to the gateways found in Ming dynasty tombs. As “Gate of the Nation”, it was normally only opened to let the Emperor pass through. Other traffic had to go through the side gates at the eastern and western ends of today’s square. The diversion allowed a buy marketplace, Chessgrid Streets, to build up in the big fences square, south of the gate.
In 1860, British and French troops invaded Beijing. They pitched camp near the gate and toyed with the idea of burning down the gate along with the entire Forbidden City. In the end, they decided to burn the emperor’s Old Summer Palace instead. Eventually the Qing emperor allowed foreign powers to establish barracks for their troops in the area. Later they also established diplomatic missions. This resulted in the Legation Quarter which is immediately to the east of the modern square. In 1900, during the Boxer Rebellion, the office complexes were heavily damaged and several ministries were burnt down. In the end, the square became a space for foreign forces to assemble their armies.
Mao Zedong wanted to make the square the largest and most spectacular in the world, capable of holding over ½ million people. In 1954, the Gate of China was demolished to allow the square to be enlarged. 1958 saw a major expansion of Tiananmen Square, which was completed in less than a year, in August 1959. During the process, a large number of homes and other buildings were demolished. The Monument to the People’s Heroes was been erected on the southern edge. At the same time, the Great Hall of the People and the Revolutionary History Museum (now National Museum of China) were built on the west and east sides of the square, as part of the Ten Great Buildings built during 1958 and 1959 to commemorate the ten-year anniversary of the People’s Republic of China.
Mao died in 1976 and a year later, a Mausoleum was built near the site of the former Gate of China. At the same time the square was increased in size once more to become a full rectangle that could hold 600,000.
The square was thus lined on all sides with buildings, trees and benches, but the square itself is open, with neither trees no benches. It is lit with large lamp-posts that have CCTV cameras attached, and is heavily monitored by both uniformed and plain-clothes police. The Square is normally open to the public, but before entry, visitors and their belongings are searched, a common practice at many Chinese tourist sites. There are lots fire extinguishers around to put out flames should a protester attempt to burn themselves alive.
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Tiananmen Square has been the focus of a number of student protests and political events. The most famous of these are the protests that occurred during the May Fourth Movement in 1919, the Mao Zedong’s proclamation of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, the protests in 1976 (the Tiananmen Incident) after the death of Premier Zhou Enlai, and the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, a pro-democracy movement which ended with the declaration of martial law in Beijing, and the deaths of hundreds, if not thousands, of civilians at the hands of soldiers. The memory of the iconic man standing in front of a moving tank still reverberates today. The “Tank Man”, still nameless today, stopped a column of tanks on June 5th, a day after the massacre. He was hustled to safety by his friends.
In the early hours of the 4th June 1989, 50 trucks and as many as 10,000 troops poured onto the streets. The soldiers overwhelmed the civilians and began firing into the crowds, but some demonstrators retaliated, throwing rocks and Molotov cocktails, and reportedly beating to death two soldiers who were seen killing a civilian. Protesters smothered an armoured personnel carrier in banners and set the vehicle ablaze, with the crew of eight or nine soldiers trapped inside. The battle continued throughout the morning. It was estimated by then that 500 to 1,000 people were dead.
Twenty-five years later and China is seeking to bury all discussion of the massacre by locking up, charging or harassing relatives of victims, as well as artists, scholars, lawyers, and bloggers. Scores of detentions have taken place; some have been placed under house arrest. Some people who were holding a private memorial gathering have been arrested and charged with offences that carry long prison terms. Tiananmen didn’t end in 1989. The Chinese people are struggling with an open, unhealed wound. Their children were killed but they are not allowed to mourn for them. China refuses to acknowledge that it has any dissidents, preferring to consider them as law-breakers. After many years of enforced silence, many young people have no idea what happened. History was erased by those in power.
Weather in Australia
The continent of Australia is very large so it has different climates in different areas. The weather is temperate for most of the year. The northern states are typically warmer than the southern states. Australia is also very dry with average annual rainfall of less than 600mm. Australia has six climatic zones and two seasonal weather patterns.
The north has equatorial, tropical and sub-tropical zones. These zones have a wet/dry pattern. The remainder has temperate, grassland and desert zones which have the four seasons – spring, summer, autumn, and winter.
Weather in Northern Australia
The equatorial area includes Bathurst Island, the tip of Cape York and Melville Island.
The tropical zone runs along northern Australia and includes the rest of Cape York, land south of the Carpentaria Gulf, the Kimberley region and top end of the Northern Territory.
The sub-tropical zone includes coastal fringes from Geraldton to the north of Perth in Western Australia, and from Cairns, along the Queensland coast, to the northern parts of New South Wales.
These zones are marked by high temperatures and high humidity and have distinct wet and dry seasons. The wet, or monsoon, season lasts about six months, from November to March. This is the hottest part pr the year, with temperatures between 30 and 50 degrees C. The high humidity is caused by large amounts of water in the air and the heavy rainfall often causes flooding. This is followed by the dry season between April and October, when it is cooler at around 20 degrees C, and the skies are clearer during the day. During the latter half of the dry season, the humidity begins to rise substantially, and there will be no relief, day or night, until the first monsoon rains fall.
The seasonal calendars of the indigenous people of northern Australia describe this pattern well:
Jiorrk – the wet season (January – February)
Bungarung – the end of the rains (March – April)
Jungalk – the hot start of the dry (May – June)
Malaparr – the cooler dry (July – August)
Worrwopmi – the humid time (September – October)
Wakaringding – the first rains (November – December)
The highest 24 hour recorded rainfall was 907 mm in Crohamhurst, Queensland on the 3 February 1893. The highest monthly recorded rainfall was 5,387.0 mm at Mount Bellenden Ker, Queensland in January 1979. The highest annual rainfall was also recorded here – 12,461.0mm in the year 2000. The highest average annual rainfall in Australia was recorded in Babinda in Queensland at 4,279.4 mm.
Alice Springs in the Northern Territory has a climate of extremes, with hot summers, where the daytime temperature is generally in the high 30sand cold winters where night-time temperatures can fall below zero. Rainfall varies enormously from year to year, and can bring thunderstorms, hail and dust storms. The average annual rainfall is around 28g mm.
Cairns, Queensland, has a tropical climate, with mild, dry winters around 18 degrees C and hot, humid summers around 23-31 degrees C. The average annual rainfall is 1992 mm, and Tropical cyclones may occur from November to the end of May along the coast.
Brisbane, Queensland has a subtropical climate and has warm or hot weather for most of the year. Most rainfall occurs during the typically humid summer, sometimes in the form of thunderstorms with torrential rain. Winter is normally dry, mild and pleasant, with mostly sunny days with average temperatures of around 17 degrees C. Average monthly rainfall over the year is about 96 mm.
Queensland’s Gold Coast, however, has a more comfortable sub-tropical climate, with daytime temperatures generally in the mid 20s degree C, and the annual average rainfall of 1400 mm falling mostly December to February.
Darwin in the Top End of the Northern Territory has two distinct seasons, the ‘wet’ and the ‘dry’. The wet season runs from November until April, and is characterised by high humidity, monsoonal rains and storms. Temperatures typically range from a minimum of 25°C to a maximum of 33°C. The ‘dry’ season, from May until October, is characterised by warm, dry sunny days and cool nights. Temperatures typically range from 21°C to 32°C, and humidity levels are much lower. Here you will find information on temperature, rainfall and seasonal activities to help you plan your holiday in Darwin.
Cyclones are tropical weather phenomena which normally occur in the north of Australia between November and April along the coasts of the Northern Territory, Queensland and Western Australia. There are about six cyclones in Australia every year. The most famous cyclone in Australia is Cyclone Tracy, which hit Darwin, Northern Territory on Christmas Eve 1974, leaving forty-nine people dead and over 600 people injured. More than eighty per cent of the city was destroyed. The worst cyclone to ever visit Australia was in 1899; over 400 people were killed when Cyclone Mahina destroyed an entire pearl-fishing fleet at Bathurst Bay, Queensland.
A vast amount of South Australia and Western Australia, the south western tip of Queensland and far north western corner of New South Wales, and not quite half of the Northern Territory are arid and semi-arid regions. These dry desert regions have high temperatures during the day, ranging from 16 to 24 degrees C in the winter to 40 degrees C in the summer. At night the temperature drops to between 0 and 19 degrees C. There are only small amounts of rain.
Surrounding these arid and semi-arid desert areas in the centre of Australia, and creeping into the area north of Alice Springs in the Northern Territory are the grasslands.
The remainder of the country is within the temperate zone including the coastal hinterland of New South Wales, most of Victoria, Tasmania, the south-eastern corner of South Australia and the south-west of Western Australia.
The seasons in Australia are described in terms of the European seasons:
Spring – September, October, November
Summer – December, January, February
Autumn – March, April, May
Winter – June, July, August
New South Wales is in the temperate zone, and is divided into four different climatic areas by the Great Dividing Range in the east of the state – the coastal strip, the highlands, the Western Slopes and flatter country in the west. Sydney is on the coast and has pleasant weather all year round with more than 340 sunny days per year. Maximum temperatures in the summer are around 26 degrees C, and it can be quite humid at this time of year. In the winter the average maximum temperature is around 16 degrees C. Rainfall in Sydney is highest between March and June.
In the country’s south-east lies the state of Victoria, which has a range of climatic zones, varying from the hot, dry areas of the northwest to the mountainous snowfields in the northeast. Rainfall varies from less than 250 mms to in excess of 1800 mm per year in different areas. Melbourne is known for its changeable weather, but generally the city enjoys warm to hot summers (average temperature 25 degrees C), mild springs and autumns and cool winters (average temperature 14 degrees C). May to October is when rainfall is at its highest.
South Australia is hot and dry in the interior and cooler and wetter in the south and on the south-east coast. Adelaide normally has mild, wet winters (average maximum temperature 15-16 degrees C) and hot, dry summers (average maximum temperature 29 degrees C). It is the driest of all the Australian capital cities – the average rainfall in the summer is around 20mm, but dry months are common. June is the wettest month with rainfall averaging around 80 mm.
Western Australia is very large, and so it contains several climatic zones. The north-west has a “wet” season with heavy rains; the south-west has mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers; the interior is mostly dry with high summer temperatures. Perth, in the south-west, has hot summers – February is normally the hottest month (average 31 degrees C). A sea breeze called ‘The Fremantle Doctor’, blowing in from the south-west provides some relief from the heat. The winters are mild and wet (average temperature 18 degrees C) with rainfall at its highest between May and September.
The island of Tasmania with a mild temperate maritime climate. Summers are mild and rainfall is fairly even throughout the year, although the winter months are the wettest. Because it is further south, the seasons are more distinctive in Tasmania than the rest of Australia. Hobart, the capital, enjoys a warm, dry summer (average temperatures of around 21 degrees C) and is protected by Mt Wellington from the worst of the weather in the winter.
Canberra, in the Australian Capital Territory, is more inland and more elevated (650m) than the other major cities of Australia. It is known for its dry, hot summers and cool winters with occasional fog and frequent frosts. Rain is distributed evenly throughout the year, and averages 629mm per year, with October being the wettest month and June the driest. Average temperatures vary from 11 degrees C during the day in July to 28 degrees C in January.
Since the 1950s, temperatures in Australia have, on average, risen by about 1°C. There has been an increase in the frequency of heat waves and the numbers of frosts and cold days have decreased with the exception of the regions immediately to the west and north-west of Sydney
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Since 1900, the sea temperatures have increased in temperature by 2 degrees C. It is predicted that the Great Barrier Reef could be killed as a result of the rise in the forecasted rise in water temperature.
In the last 200 years, Australia has experienced many serious droughts. During the 1895-1903 drought fifty per cent of Australia’s sheep and forty per cent of its cattle died. The 1963–68 drought (1958-1967 in central Australia), wheat crops suffered a forty per cent decrease. These droughts have mostly been linked with the El Nino-Southern Oscillation which affects greatly affects Australia. It can cause droughts, flooding, dust storms and tornados, as well as tropical cyclones, heat waves, bushfires and frosts. Also, some areas are becoming over salinated or turning to desert.
Voice acting is the art of doing voice-overs or providing voices for animated characters in various works, including feature films, dubbed foreign language films, animated short films, television programs, commercials, radio or audio dramas, comedy, video games, puppet shows, amusement rides, audiobooks and documentaries. Voice acting is also done for small handheld audio games.
Performers are called voice actors or actresses, voice artists or voice talent. Their roles may also involve singing, although a second voice actor is sometimes cast as the character’s singing voice. Voice acting is recognized in Britain as a specialized dramatic profession, chiefly owing to the BBC‘s long tradition of radio drama.
Dave Landon is a Voice Actor in Portland, Oregon.
is a New York City-based American rock band. The band consists of Jenny Tuite (singer/guitarist) and Alex Molini (synth/bassist). Dirty Dishes
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style is described as rock blasting hooks headfirst into speaker-shredding fuzz. Smashing Pumpkins, My Bloody Valentine, Radiohead, Sonic Youth, Chavez, Bjork, and Autolux have been cited as their influences.
Electric Gate Automation Benefits
There are many driveway gates automation benefits! Manually operated driveway gates have their own benefits – though not many of them. It might keep you fit having to jump out of your car to open your driveway gates, but few would appreciate this on a cold, dark winter night! Then there is the security aspect, where you have to fumble for your padlock or gate lock key and hope you still have it on you and nobody is lurking in the shadows waiting for the gate to be opened!